Corona Chronicles: Voices from the Field

COVID-19と治安部門ガバナンス
--東南アジアの議論から日本が学ぶこと--

本稿の目的は、東南アジアの新興国やポスト紛争国の問題と捉えられがちな治安部門改革(Security Sector Reform:SSR)や治安部門ガバナンス(Security Sector Governance:SSG)を、日本の課題として論じることである。

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防疫体制と草の根保守――
北部ミンダナオからの視点

本稿の英語版の公開から約1ヶ月が経過し、7月になったが、世界中から報告される新型コロナウィルス感染者の数は増え続けている。2020年1月頃からの「史料」を読み返してみると、顛末の奇妙さや変化の速さに驚かされる。

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Los Albergues para Migrantes en el Contexto del COVID-19: Una Visión Desde Baja California, México

México por su vecindad con Estados Unidos es un país que presenta muchas dinámicas migratorias; es un país expulsor, de tránsito, destino y retorno

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Migrant Shelters under COVID-19: An Approach from Baja California, Mexico

México is a country that presents many migration dynamics due to its proximity to the United States (US); it is not only a source of migrants, but also a country of transit, destiny and repatriation.

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Capitalist Expansion, COVID-19, and the Misery of Papuans

The provincial government of Papua was one of the few regions in Indonesia that took swift action to impose ‘local restrictions’ during the initial stage of the pandemic outbreak

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COVID Reflections: A View from Singapore

On 19 June 2020, Singapore entered the second phase of its exit from a seven-week Circuit Breaker (CB) that began on 7 April, 2020. This phase marks the reopening of businesses, shops and restaurants.

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Indonesia’s problematic response to COVID-19

To date, Indonesia has yet to deal efficiently with the COVID-19 pandemic and the situation remains critical compared to neighboring countries such as Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand or Vietnam (Asean Briefing 2020).

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Creative Social Media Acts in Response to COVID-19

It was March when the ongoing pandemic became real for Indonesians. As soon as President Jokowi announced the first COVID-19 patient on March 2, 2020 (Kompas, 2020), people became aware of their daily activities. They felt unprepared and the tension was palpable.

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The Life of the Bajo People amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic

Indonesia was firstly alerted on COVID-19 pandemic already entered this country, when the first case of infection was confirmed in Depok, West Java, on 2 March, 2020 (Nuraini 2020)

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歴史的視点からみたラテンアメリカにおける疫病とブラジルでのクロロキン

20世紀のラテンアメリカにおける疫病に関する歴史研究には、疫病に対する政府の姿勢の根底に流れる考えを分析したものがある。そうした研究は、現在のラテンアメリカにおける新型コロナウイルスに対する政策を理解するうえで重要だ

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Reflexiones en Torno a la Lucha Contra el COVID-19 en el Perú

Palabras Claves: Perú COVID-19 Planificación Crisis EN Al momento de escribir estas líneas, Perú es el segundo país de Latinoamérica con mayor cantidad de personas infectadas con COVID-19 (94,933) y el tercero en cantidad de muertes (2,789), solo por detrás de Brasil, México y Ecuador—los dos primeros con una mayor población y extensión territorial, y, en el caso brasileño, con un presidente que rehusado tomar medidas adecuadas contra la pandemia.

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Reflections on the Fight Against COVID-19 in Peru

At the time of writing, Peru has the second highest number of people infected with COVID-19 (94, 933) in Latin America, only behind Brazil, and the fourth in regard to the number of deaths (2,789), only behind Brazil, Mexico and Ecuador—the first two countries with a larger population and territorial extension, and, in the Brazilian case, with a president that has refused to take proper measures against the pandemic.

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インドネシア経済は新型コロナウィルス感染症勝ち組に!?

新型コロナウィルス感染症問題はインドネシア経済を直撃している。ジャカルタでは、4月10日から実施されている大規模ソーシャルディスタンス政策(PSBB)によって、オフィスへの通勤が原則禁止された。また、ジャカルタの街にあふれていた緑色のゴージェックオートバイ

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新型コロナウイルス
──カンボジアの事例──

カンボジアにおいて新型コロナウイルスの1人目の感染者が確認されたのは、今から4カ月ほど前の1月27日のことであった。陽性が確認されたのは1月23日に中国武漢からカンボジア南部の都市シアヌークヴィルへの直行便でカンボジアに入国した中国人であった。

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The Philippines’ Response to COVID-19: Limits of State Capacity

COVID-19 is more than just a health crisis. It has accelerated the shift to a digital economy/society, revealed the shaky foundation of international cooperation, escalated hegemonic rivalry between the two major powers, and shed light on the variation of the capacity and nature of states.

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邦人高齢ロングステイヤーからみた
北部タイの新型コロナ・ウィルス体験

タイ国の新型コロナ・ウィルスの発生は、1月13日に中国武漢市出身の女性がスワンナプーム国際空港で入国時の検疫で見つかったのが最初であった。1月末迄の患者の大半が、中国からの旅行者で、合計19人ほどであった。2月10日…

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COVID-19 Prevention and Society: A View from Northern Mindanao

At the time of this writing, on 3 June 2020, the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection has reached 6.4 million, with over 378,000 deaths around the world (John Hopkins University, 3 June, 2020).

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A Truly COVID-19 Malaysian Food Story

Worldwide, over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, food production and distribution has been severely disrupted in a myriad of ways. This included panic-buying, delivery bottlenecks, export or import bans, sick factory and market workers which will have long-term economic repercussions.

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COVID-19 Response in Thailand

Keywords: Thailand COVID-19 Thai Government Restrictions Despite the apparent lack of political leadership and slow action by the Thai government, the COVID-19 pandemic has been effectively controlled in Thailand thanks to its excellent public health and medical systems. Thailand was the first country with the first confirmed case outside of China, and the first confirmed case of a Thai citizen was a taxi driver who contracted the disease from a Chinese tourist in January 2020. The total number of confirmed cases as of early June 2020 hovered above 3,000 and deaths under 60, which are relatively low considering how closely connected the medium-size middle income country is to China, where […]

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COVID-19 in Hong Kong as a Double Punch with Civil Unrest: Governance, Ambivalence, and Recession

On 31 December, 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) received a report of an outbreak of ‘pneumonia of unknown cause’ in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei Province in China, from the Chinese government.

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Epidemics in Latin America and Chloroquine in Brazil in Historical Perspective

Some historical studies on Latin American epidemics during the 20th century have analyzed the legacy of official responses and are important to offer an understanding of the political reactions to COVID-19 in the region (Cueto & Palmer, 2016).

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Epidemias en América Latina y la Cloroquina en Brasil en Perspectiva Histórica

Algunos estudios históricos sobre las epidemias Latinoamericanas durante el siglo XX han analizado el legado de las respuestas oficiales y son importantes para entender las reacciones políticas al Covid-19 en la región (Cueto & Palmer, 2016).

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Observations and Reflections on COVID-19 in Timor-Leste

Timor-Leste’s first positive case was discovered on 21 March, 2020, triggering fear and panic in the population. This consequently led to the fast approval of a state of emergency or lockdown to deal with a possible worst-case scenario where one third of the population might contract COVID-19 leading to the death of up to 3 percent (Government of Timor-Leste, April 16, 2020).

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SARS-CoV-2 Mutation and Dissemination in Southeast Asia: Implications for a Prospective Vaccine

A devastating, once-in-a-century pandemic unleashed by COVID-19 has launched a groundbreaking vaccine development effort at a global scale: one never been seen before in the history of modern medicine. By June 2020, up to 133 candidate vaccines— 10 of which are in clinical trial —have been listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) undergoing current testing against SARS-CoV-2, the causal pathogen of COVID-19.1

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Bhutan’s response to COVID-19

As the COVID-19 pandemic situation continues to deteriorate and profoundly challenge life across the world, the people of Bhutan have managed to keep the pandemic situation under control. The precautionary approach the government has taken in response to the global pandemic has, to date, been effective.

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Neighborhood Lockdown as the New Normal? Jakarta’s COVID-19 Experience

On 7 May 2020, President Joko Widodo (hereafter Jokowi) stated that people must make peace with COVID-19, while justifying the country’s choice of not imposing lockdown (Tempo 2020).

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Southeast Asian Workers on the Ground of Pandemic-Stricken Medical and Nursing Care Services in Japan: Their Daily Lives and Concerns

As with other countries around the world, the spread of COVID-19 in Japan, directly struck healthcare facilities and care homes for the elderly. By early May 2020, a total of 250 cases of mass infections (cluster infections) had broken out across Japan. Of those, 85 cases occurred in medical institutions and 40 cases in senior care facilities (Mainichi Shimbun, 13 May, 2020).

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People to people: Covid-19 and Reimagining Solidarity Among the Working Class in Jakarta

The implementation of large-scale social restriction (Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar, PSBB) in Indonesia has put the working class in a more precarious condition. Moreover, while public mobility and activities are put on hold, the Indonesian Parliament insisted to hold a session for the controversial draft of Omnibus Law.

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Philippines TV Network Shutdown as a COVID-19 “Teleserye”

The COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines compelled broadcasting to radically downscale its operations. Days before the Philippine state’s “enhanced community quarantine” (the strictest form of quarantine enforced in high risk places) took effect last 16 March, 2020, the leading network, Alto Broadcasting Corporation-Chronicle Broadcasting Network (ABS-CBN) and its closest competitor Global Media Arts (GMA) Network, both announced suspension of TV productions, mostly of daily soap operas popularly known as “teleseryes” (Marquez 2020; Mercurio 2020).

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Opening a COVID-free “Fortress”: Bohol’s Experience

Confining ourselves to a “COVID-free” island seems to be the safest way to live in a pandemic world. Bohol, the island province in Central Visayas, managed to remain COVID-free until the end of April by closing the provincial borders, although the infection has spread throughout the Philippines.

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パンデミックに襲われた日本の医療・介護現場で働く東南アジア出身労働者
―─その日常生活と意識―─

日本における新型コロナウイルスの感染拡大は、諸外国同様、医療機関や高齢者介護施設を直撃した。今年5月初めまでに日本では計250件の集団感染(クラスター感染)が起きた。そのうち85件は医療機関、40件は高齢者施設で起きたものである(毎日新聞、2020年5月13日)。これに伴って、多くの入所者や入院患者が亡くなった。NHKの調べでは、4月末までに全国各地の高齢者施設で550人余りが感染し、入所者60人の死亡が確認されている

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パンデミック下のマレーシア
--コロナ禍に垣間見た強さと、ちらつく脆さ--

不測の危機が訪れたときに、備えていた性質があきらかになるのは、人も国も同じなのかもしれない。このコラムでは、まず5月半ばまでのコロナ禍の状況を概観し、続いて5つのキーワードを挙げながら、これまでマレーシアがみせた強さと、これから露わになるかもしれない弱さを語ってみたい。

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COVID-19 in Singapore: Confronting the truth of Intertwined Interests

The Singapore government’s famed bureaucratic efficiency was in full display in January 2020 when, even before the first local COVID-19 infection was detected, a multi-agency task force was formed to deploy the virus containment protocols that now define the world’s new normal.

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ラオスにおける新型コロナウィルス対策
--「成功」の背景と今後の展望--

COVID-19対策特別委員会の会見は,「敬愛する皆様」という呼びかけで始まる。3月末から毎日続く会見は複数のフェイスブックでライブ中継され,何千人もの視聴者を集める。内容は国内の検査状況と感染者情報,隔離状況等ほぼ型通りだが,新たな措置・法令に関する説明や個別セクターの報告が盛り込まれることもある。

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COVID-19 in Cambodia: A Double-edged Sword and its Triple Effects on Democracy

In late 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan, China. The first case of COVID-19 was found in Sihanoukville in Cambodia on 27 January 2020, through a 60-year-old Chinese national who arrived from Wuhan, China on in 23 January, 2020 with his three other family members. Between January and April 2020, the number of COVID-19 cases rose from one case in Sihanouville to 122 cases across Cambodia, ranking Cambodia no.9 among 12 countries in Southeast Asia.

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Discursive Control, Thai-Style: The Ministry of Interior and the COVID-19 Outbreak

Nearly two months after the deadly COVID-19 virus arrived in Thailand, the Thai government’s initial laidback approach to dealing with the disease quickly changed when a large cluster of infections erupted early March at a scandal-ridden military-run boxing ring in Bangkok.

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The Paralysis of Tourism and the Rise of Agriculture in Bali, Indonesia

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a global disaster and impacted societies in an unprecedented fashion. In Indonesia, the government has declared a ‘stay at home’ instruction along with others including working learning and worshiping from home.

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Political Plague1: Thailand’s COVID-19 State of Emergency as a Mere Footnote in an Historical Tragedy of Authoritarianism

In Thailand, 2020 will be remembered more for COVID-19 than for the State of Emergency which authorities decreed ostensibly to combat the virus. But Thailand’s 2020 draconian response to COVID-19 has re-illuminated the authoritarian character of the current regime governing the country and the absolutist heritage of the kingdom itself.

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Thailand and COVID-19: What’s Happened and What’s Next

The first case of COVID-19 in Thailand was reported on 13 January 2020, a female Chinese tourist from Wuhan. It was then widely predicted that Thailand would be the third worst hit by the virus, after China and Hong Kong, largely because of the large number of Chinese tourists, 11 million in 2019.

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Global Problems, Local Pain: Coronavirus in Mexico and the Philippines

COVID-19, a virus one hundred times smaller than a cell, has pushed millions of people over the edge, and aggravated our dominant economic system. With both Mexico and the Philippines, both geographically distant but united by history, as of the 3 May, authorities reported 22,088 infections and 2,061 deaths in Mexico1 and 9,223 and 607 respectively in the Philippines.

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Handling the Outbreak among the Indigenous People of Dayak Benawan

Since March 2020, the Indonesian National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) has categorized the COVID-19 outbreak as a national disaster. To date, however, the authorities have issued no specific guidelines for indigenous peoples.

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Cambodia: An Optimistic Country Amidst a Global Pandemic

Cambodia’s first confirmed case of Covid-19 was about a month later than the first confirmed case in Wuhan, China. The first case was from a Chinese man who came to visit Cambodia on 27 January and the second case was on 7 March 2020. As of 28 April 2020, there were 122 confirmed cases (with 119 recovered) within 13 out of 25 provinces and capital, with three major hotspots including Sihanoukville with 40 patients, Phnom Penh 28, and Kampong Cham 16.

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The New Normal and Conversations Under the Tamarind Tree

Adapting to the new normal prompted by the pandemic is challenging for a developing country like Myanmar. Wearing a mask is proving a difficult adaptation for people from all walks of life — housewives, monks, nuns, bus drivers, labourers and sellers in the market.

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Power in the Time of Covid-19: Notes & Reflections on the Malaysian ‘MCO’

The Malaysian government enforced the Movement Control Order (hereafter, ‘MCO’, being the form of nation-wide ‘lockdown’ as it is known locally) beginning from the 18th of March, 2020, and had since been extended until the 12th of May, as the main centrepiece of its overall strategy to contain the Covid-19 pandemic within its borders.

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Covid-19 and Popular Culture in Southeast Asia

While each Southeast Asian country has taken various responses toward the COVID-19 pandemic, a similarity was the need of governments, organizations and even individuals to ensure accurate and updated information to keep their communities, and citizens safe.

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Indonesia at a Crossroads amidst Efforts to Contain the Coronavirus

At the beginning of May, the Indonesian news and social media broke a big news story about 500 workers from the People’s Republic of China who were granted visas amidst the Indonesian government’s travel restriction to contain the Coronavirus. These workers would be heading to their final destination in South Konawe Regency in the Indonesian province of Southeast Sulawesi, where they would work at a nickel industrial plant.

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The Pandemic in Burma

Though Burma shares a long border with China, state authorities initially claimed there was not one case of COVID-19 in the country. Some earnestly, but naively, attributed this to what they fondly called their unique social lives, whereas many others gave credit to religion.

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Uncertainties Hound Overseas Filipinos in the Mekong Region

Amongst people wearing masks, coming and leaving, my friend and I met in the middle of the busy Payathai Train Station walkway. We took off our masks and embraced.

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Locked-in, Locked-down: COVID-19 in Laos

Laos was the last ASEAN member state to confirm the presence of COVID-19 within its borders. The Lao Vice Minister of Health announced in a televised press conference on 24 March 2020 that two Lao nationals had tested positive for the virus, a day after Myanmar reported its first COVID-19 case. Dispensing with international health confidentiality protocols, the Vice Minister provided the names of the two patients, in addition to more standard information.

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Navigating Solicitudes in the Times of Pandemic

On Saturday 26 April, the Malaysian Institute of Economic Research (MIER) sent congratulatory notes to Malaysian frontliners in the COVID-19 battle and proclaimed that Malaysia has successfully cured 32.7% of its COVID-19 cases, the highest in the world, whose average was only 21.01%, while our case fatality rate (MIER, 24 April, 2020) was only 1.63% as opposed to the world average of 5.49%. It went on to state, this “proves that the government has done right and our healthcare is among the best and our frontlines are excellent!” (MIER, 2020).

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Amid the Pandemic, a Killing, Arrests and Crackdown on Freedom

On our eighth week of lockdown in Metro Manila, the killing of a man who supposedly attempted to breach a checkpoint, and the government clamping down on netizens for their social media posts perceived to be critical of President Duterte are emblematic of the heavy hand of the state during this public-health emergency.

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Covid-19. El caso del Perú

En el Perú el primer caso de covid-19 se registró el 6 de marzo del año 2020, un piloto de LATAM que volvía de sus vacaciones en España. Una vez conocida esta situación el ‘paciente cero’ fue aislado y se procedió a hacer seguimiento a sus familiares y contactos.

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Covid-19 in Peru

Peru noted its first case of covid-19 on March 6, 2020, when a pilot for LATAM airlines returned from his vacation in Spain. Once this situation was known, “patient zero” was isolated and his family and contacts were followed up.

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Self-isolation in Hanoi during COVID-19: What Made it Possible?

From Midnight, March 28, 2020, Vietnam commenced a nation-wide period of “social isolation’’ (or self-isolation). This requires staying at home for a maximum period of time and only leaving the house in cases of emergency. This isolation has been implemented on the principles of “family members staying isolated at their family base, that villages are separated from other villages, commune from communes, districts from other the districts, and province from other provinces.”

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Two Prayuths Dilemma and COVID-19 in Thailand

The COVID-19 Thailand is the miniature caricature of Thai politics. When it comes to choices of governance, Thais face a dilemma of two evils: the electorate party and the bureaucratic party.

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Living in the Time of the Virus: A Note from Thailand

On paper, the situation in Thailand isn’t as severe as many of our Southeast Asian neighbors. As of April 28, the number of patients infected with coronavirus stands just below 3,000, with 54 fatalities.

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South Korea: Openness, Transparency and Solidarity Coping with COVID-19

100 days have passed since the first positive case of COVID-19 was confirmed on 20 January, 2020, in South Korea. As of this writing (27 April, 2020), the accumulative cases that tested positive have reached 10,738 and fatalities 243. At present, the situation here is relatively stable.

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Duterte’s COVID-19 Powers and the Paradox of the Philippine Presidency

As the coronavirus pandemic continues to ravage the Philippines and the rest of the world, President Rodrigo R. Duterte has threatened to impose martial law to instill discipline on people breaking the quarantine law in the country’s largest island of Luzon. “Shoot them dead,” he earlier instructed the military and police in a televised address. “Dead.

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From Rice ATMs to Giving a Helping Hand

Vietnam has 265 cases of the novel coronavirus and zero deaths, numbers that are significantly lower than the rest of the world. But still, to prevent further spread, the government has enforced social distancing, effectively shutting down many small businesses and leaving millions out of work.

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Witness to the Pandemic in Yangon

Monday, 20 April, 2020, Yangon came out of a ten-day stay-at-home order that just happened to coincide with the Thingyan (Buddhist New Year) holiday. Businesses would largely be closed and people stayed at home in any case.

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In Times of Corona

By the end of December 2019, Myanmar was overwhelmed with internet news relating to the deadly Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Corona Virus COVID-19 in Wuhan, East China. At the time, in Yangon we had little knowledge about who had been infected by the new virus as the World Health Organization (WHO) level 3 laboratory only arrived at the National Health Laboratory in Yangon in mid-March. The quality of the Burmese health system is widely known to be close to last on a list of over 190 countries, and there has been an emergency situation here.

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COVID-19 & Myanmar

After the announcement from the Burmese Ministry of Health and Sports on 23 March 2020 that the first COVID-19 patient has been found in Myanmar, many changes occured in Myanmar’s society. This was followed by fear and uncertainty.

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COVID-19 in Myanmar: Why Didn’t We Prepare?

During what is now the “time of corona,” people have to stay at home stay and have now flocked to online social media, in particular, Facebook. Even Aung San Suu Kyi, the national leader, become active on the platform to communicate to people. On Facebook many Burmese see her as a hero and they blindly write comments worshipping her.

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Year of the Corona Virus : The Best and the Worst of Times

It has been a month since President Rodrigo Duterte put the entire island of Luzon (where Metro Manila is located) under Enhanced Community Quarantine (ECQ), and every single day the apocalyptic nature of this corona virus crisis that has bunkered 63 million people (57% of Filipinos live in Luzon) in their homes is announced by all forms of media. The daily wage earners: tricycle and cab drivers, construction workers, market and street vendors, contractuals, service industry workers, all are painfully at a loss over how to put food on their tables.

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Corona Chronicles: Voices from the Field

In late December 2019, the Coronavirus (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), was identified. In early January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported the first cluster of pneumonia cases. Subsequently, this led to recognition of human-to-human transmission, a virulent outbreak, and the quarantining of Wuhan on the 23 January.

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